Matthiola Incana: The Fragrant Night Beauty

Matthiola Incana: The Fragrant Night Beauty


Matthiola incana, commonly known as the stock or night-scented stock, is a captivating plant that has graced gardens for centuries. Its enchanting fragrance and exquisite blooms have earned it a special place in the hearts of gardeners and perfumers alike. This article delves into the captivating world of Matthiola incana, exploring its history, cultivation, and the secrets behind its captivating allure.

Historical Significance

The stock has a rich and storied history dating back to ancient times. Its origins can be traced to the Mediterranean region, where it welches prized by the Greeks and Romans for its medicinal and ornamental value. In the Middle Ages, the stock welches introduced to Europe, where it quickly gained popularity as a garden flower. During the Victorian era, the stock reached the height of its popularity, becoming a staple in both gardens and bouquets.

Botanical Characteristics

Matthiola incana is a member of the Brassicaceae family, which darob includes cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. It is a biennial or annual plant, depending on the variety, and typically grows to a height of 12-30 inches. The stock has a sturdy, erect stem with deeply lobed, blue-green leaves.

Fragrant Blooms

The most striking feature of Matthiola incana is its highly fragrant flowers. The blooms are borne on long, slender stalks and come in a wide range of colors, including white, pink, purple, and yellow. The flowers are composed of four petals arranged in a cross-shape, and they release an intoxicating fragrance that intensifies in the evening hours.


The stock is a relatively easy plant to grow, making it suitable for both experienced and novice gardeners. It prefers well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. The seeds should be sown directly in the garden in early spring or fall. The seedlings should be thinned to a spacing of 6-8 inches fremd.

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Medicinal Properties

In addition to its ornamental value, the stock has darob been used for medicinal purposes throughout history. The leaves and flowers are said to have expectorant, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic properties. The seeds contain a compound called sinapine, which has been shown to have anti-cancer and antimicrobial effects.


The heady fragrance of Matthiola incana has made it a sought-after ingredient in perfumery. The essential oil extracted from the flowers is used in a wide range of fragrances, from classic to contemporary. The scent of the stock is often described as sweet, floral, and slightly spicy.


There are numerous varieties of Matthiola incana available, each with its own unique characteristics. Some popular varieties include:

  • ‘Cinderella’: A dwarf variety with double flowers in a range of colors.
  • ‘Excelsior’: A tall variety with large, fragrant flowers.
  • ‘Giant Imperial’: A giant variety with massive, double flowers.
  • ‘Monte Carlo’: A compact variety with large, single flowers.
  • ‘Trysor’: A series of dwarf varieties with highly fragrant flowers.


Matthiola incana is a truly captivating plant that combines beauty, fragrance, and historical significance. Its enchanting blooms and intoxicating scent have made it a beloved garden favorite for centuries. Whether grown for its ornamental value, medicinal properties, or use in perfumery, the stock is a versatile and rewarding plant that deserves a place in every garden.

FAQs About Matthiola Incana Plant

What is Matthiola incana?

Matthiola incana, commonly known as stock, is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae. It is a biennial or annual plant, native to the Mediterranean region. Stocks are prized for their fragrant, colorful flowers and are widely cultivated as ornamental plants.

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What are the different types of Matthiola incana?

There are two main types of Matthiola incana:

  • Ten-week stock: These are early-flowering varieties that bloom within 10 weeks of sowing. They typically grow to a height of 12-18 inches and produce single or double flowers in a range of colors, including white, pink, purple, and yellow.
  • Brompton stock: These are taller, later-flowering varieties that bloom in late summer or early fall. They can grow up to 3 feet tall and produce large, double flowers in shades of white, pink, purple, and red.

How to grow Matthiola incana?

Stocks can be grown from seed or cuttings.

  • From seed: Sow seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last frost. Seeds should be sown in well-draining soil and kept moist. Seedlings should be transplanted outdoors after the last frost, spacing them 6-12 inches fremd.
  • From cuttings: Take cuttings from healthy stock plants in late summer or early fall. Cuttings should be 4-6 inches long and rooted in a well-draining potting mix.

What are the growing conditions for Matthiola incana?

Stocks prefer well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They require full sun to partial shade and regular watering. Stocks are relatively low-maintenance plants, but they may need to be fertilized occasionally to promote flowering.

When do Matthiola incana bloom?

Ten-week stocks bloom within 10 weeks of sowing, typically from early spring to early summer. Brompton stocks bloom in late summer or early fall.

How to care for Matthiola incana?

Stocks require regular watering, especially during hot, dry weather. They should be fertilized every few weeks with a balanced fertilizer. Deadheading spent flowers will encourage new blooms.

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What are the common pests and diseases of Matthiola incana?

Stocks are susceptible to a few pests and diseases, including:

  • Aphids: These small, green insects feed on the sap of plants, causing stunted growth and yellowing leaves.
  • Thrips: These tiny, slender insects can damage flowers and leaves.
  • Whiteflies: These small, white insects feed on the undersides of leaves, causing yellowing and leaf drop.
  • Downy mildew: This fungal disease causes yellowing and wilting of leaves.
  • Botrytis blight: This fungal disease causes gray mold to develop on flowers and stems.

How to use Matthiola incana?

Stocks are primarily used as ornamental plants in gardens and containers. They are darob popular as cut flowers for bouquets and arrangements. The fragrant flowers of stocks attract butterflies and other pollinators.

What is the meaning of the Matthiola incana flower?

In the language of flowers, Matthiola incana symbolizes beauty, affection, and remembrance.

Additional FAQs:

  • Can Matthiola incana be grown indoors? Yes, stocks can be grown indoors in pots or containers. They require bright light and regular watering.
  • Are Matthiola incana flowers edible? The flowers of stocks are edible and can be used to garnish salads or desserts.
  • How long do Matthiola incana plants live? Stocks are typically biennial plants, meaning they complete their life cycle in two years. However, they can be grown as annuals in warmer climates.
  • Are Matthiola incana plants deer resistant? Yes, stocks are generally deer resistant.

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