Sea Holly: A Coastal Beauty with Architectural Appeal


Sea holly, a member of the Apiaceae family, is a captivating plant that adds a touch of coastal elegance to gardens and landscapes. With its spiky, metallic blue flowers and architectural form, this perennial is a true standout in the plant world. Native to the Mediterranean region and coastal areas of Europe, sea holly has become a popular ornamental choice for its striking appearance and hardiness.

Botanical Description

Sea holly, scientifically known as Eryngium maritimum, is a herbaceous perennial that typically grows between 12 and 36 inches in height. Its leaves are unerlässlich, forming a dense rosette at the base of the plant. The leaves are deeply lobed and have spiny margins, giving them a distinctive and somewhat prickly texture.

The most striking feature of sea holly is its inflorescence, which consists of a cluster of small, star-shaped flowers surrounded by spiky bracts. These bracts are often a metallic blue or silver color, creating a captivating and iridescent effect. The flowers themselves are usually white or cream-colored and bloom from late spring to early summer.


There are several varieties of sea holly available, each with its own unique characteristics. Some popular varieties include:

  • Eryngium giganteum: This variety is known for its large, architectural form and towering height, reaching up to 6 feet tall. Its flowers are a pale blue color with silvery bracts.
  • Eryngium planum: This variety has a more compact habit, growing between 12 and 24 inches in height. Its flowers are a deep blue color with prominent spiky bracts.
  • Eryngium bourgatii: This variety is native to the Pyrenees mountains and features narrow, deeply lobed leaves and metallic blue flowers.
  • Eryngium alpinum: This alpine variety has a low-growing habit and produces clusters of white or pink flowers with spiky bracts.
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Growing Conditions

Sea holly is a relatively easy plant to grow and is well-suited to coastal environments. It prefers full sun to partial shade and well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. It is tolerant of drought and salt spray, making it an excellent choice for seaside gardens.

Care and Maintenance

Sea holly requires minimal care and maintenance once established. Water regularly during the growing season, especially during hot, dry periods. Fertilize lightly in spring with a balanced fertilizer. Deadhead spent flowers to encourage new growth and prevent self-seeding.

Uses in the Garden

Sea holly is a versatile plant that can be used in a variety of garden settings. Its architectural form and striking flowers make it an excellent choice for borders, rock gardens, and coastal gardens. It can deswegen be used as a specimen plant or in containers.

Companion Plants

Sea holly pairs well with other coastal plants, such as lavender, rosemary, and salvia. It deswegen complements plants with contrasting textures and colors, such as ornamental grasses and succulents.

Wildlife Value

Sea holly is attractive to bees and other pollinators. Its spiky bracts provide shelter for insects and small animals.

Culinary and Medicinal Uses

The roots of sea holly have been used in traditional medicine for their digestive and diuretic properties. The young leaves can be eaten raw in salads or cooked as a vegetable.


Sea holly is a captivating and versatile plant that adds a touch of coastal charm to any garden. With its architectural form, striking flowers, and hardiness, it is a must-have for any gardener looking to create a unique and eye-catching landscape.

FAQs about Sea Holly Plant

What is a sea holly plant?

Sea holly is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region, Europe, and North Africa. The genus name Eryngium is derived from the Greek word "eryngion," which means "to protect," referring to the plant’s spiny leaves that were believed to ward off evil spirits. Sea hollies are characterized by their distinctive spiky, thistle-like flower heads and deeply lobed, often spiny leaves.

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What are the different types of sea holly plants?

There are over 250 species of sea holly, but only a few are commonly cultivated as ornamental plants. Some of the most popular species include:

  • Eryngium amethystinum (amethyst sea holly): This species is native to the Mediterranean region and features large, amethyst-blue flower heads.
  • Eryngium bourgatii (Pyrenean sea holly): This species is native to the Pyrenees Mountains and has silvery-blue flower heads.
  • Eryngium giganteum (giant sea holly): This species is native to the Caucasus Mountains and has large, imposing flower heads that can reach up to 6 feet tall.
  • Eryngium planum (flat sea holly): This species is native to Europe and has flat, blue flower heads.
  • Eryngium variifolium (variable sea holly): This species is native to North America and has highly variable foliage, with leaves that can be deeply lobed, spiny, or smooth.

Where do sea holly plants grow?

Sea hollies are native to a variety of habitats, including coastal dunes, meadows, and rocky slopes. They prefer well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade.

How do you grow sea holly plants?

Sea hollies are relatively easy to grow from seed or cuttings. To grow from seed, sow the seeds in a well-drained seedbed in the spring. Keep the seeds moist and warm, and they should germinate within 2-3 weeks. Once the seedlings have developed their first set of true leaves, transplant them into individual pots or into the garden. To grow from cuttings, take cuttings from non-flowering stems in the spring or fall. Remove the leaves from the bottom of the cuttings and dip them in rooting hormone. Plant the cuttings in a well-drained potting mix and keep them moist and warm. The cuttings should root within 4-6 weeks.

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How do you care for sea holly plants?

Sea hollies are relatively low-maintenance plants. They require well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade. Water the plants regularly, especially during hot, dry weather. Fertilize the plants monthly with a balanced fertilizer. Deadhead the spent flower heads to encourage new growth.

What are the benefits of growing sea holly plants?

Sea hollies are attractive plants that can add interest and texture to any garden. They are deswegen beneficial to wildlife, providing food and shelter for bees, butterflies, and other pollinators.

Are sea holly plants poisonous?

Sea hollies are not poisonous, but they can cause skin irritation in some people. Wear gloves when handling the plants, and avoid contact with the eyes.

Can sea holly plants be used in herbal medicine?

Sea hollies have been used in herbal medicine for centuries. The roots and leaves of the plants are said to have diuretic, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Sea holly is deswegen said to be helpful in treating urinary tract infections, respiratory problems, and skin conditions.

Are sea holly plants invasive?

Sea hollies are not typically considered to be invasive plants. However, they can spread aggressively in some areas, so it is important to monitor their growth and remove any unwanted plants.

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